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Aktiv seit 11. Januar 2023 | Noch 37 Tage Laufzeit

18 killed during protests

AI-Index: AMR 46/6346/2023

On 9 January, 18 people were killed during protests in the city of Juliaca, in the Puno region, in Peru. The country continues to experience protests and violence in different regions, following the announcement of then-president Castillo to dissolve Congress and his consequent arrest on 7 December. Both the National Police and the Armed Forces have used excessive force against protesters. At least 40 individuals have died since 7 December. Amnesty International urges President Boluarte to put an immediate end to all forms of unlawful force by the security forces.


Peru has been immersed in a prolonged political crisis in recent years, which escalated with the announcement made by then President Castillo of the dissolution of the Congress of the Republic on 7 December 2022.

The Constitutional Court and the Congress rejected this decision, and Castillo was arrested that same day. The Vice President, Dina Boluarte, was quickly sworn in as President, and local authorities formally recognized her as the new President.

These events unleashed a major wave of protests in different regions of the country, which were repressed by the Peruvian armed forces and police. In the first days of the protests, dozens of people were injured and at least two people died. In addition, local journalists reported being assaulted and stripped of their equipment by the National Police.

By December 16, two days after the Peruvian State declared a state of emergency in the face of the political crisis, the number of people killed had risen to 17.

During the Christmas holidays, the protests subsided briefly, but with the beginning of the new year, thousands of people have once again taken to the streets in Peru and state repression has become more acute.

On 9 January at least 18 people died, and dozens were injured during protests in the city of Juliaca.

From the beginning of the protests to date, official sources have reported the deaths of at least 40 people in the regions of Puno, Ayacucho, Apurimac, Cusco, Junin, La Libertad and Arequipa. It should be noted that most of the victims belong to rural and historically marginalized communities in Peru.

Amnesty International has expressed concern about the excessive use of force used against protesters and made calls to ensure access to justice and remedies for victims. On 12 December, it issued a first press release condemning the deaths of two people. An urgent action was issued the following day calling for an immediate cease of violence against protesters. On 16 December, it issued a second press release calling for accountability for the deaths of at least 17 people. Finally, on 10 January, a third press release was issued following the events in Juliaca.

Amnesty International reminds the authorities that a protest does not lose its peaceful character because of sporadic acts or unlawful behaviour by individuals. Therefore, the respect, guarantee and protection of the human rights of those who demonstrate peacefully must not be diminished. State security forces should also prioritize the peaceful resolution of the situation and avoid using force in ways that contravene international standards.

Take action

  • Write an appeal in your own words or use the model letter below.

  • Take action on Social media: Infos see the yellow field on the right

  • Please take action before 7 March 2023

  • Preferred language: Spanish. You can also write in your own language.

Model letter

Model letter in Spanish open here / Aqui modelo de carta en español

Estimada Sra. presidenta Dina Boluarte,
Escribo para expresarle mi preocupación por la muerte de 18 personas durante las protestas en la ciudad de Juliaca, en la región de Puno, en Perú, el 9 de enero de 2023. También me preocupan las decenas de personas que resultaron heridas ese día.
Estas muertes se suman al alarmante número de víctimas mortales de al menos 40 personas desde el inicio de la crisis política en Perú, el 7 de diciembre de 2022, en el contexto de la represión de las protestas. El gobierno ha arremetido contra quienes han expresado su descontento con la crisis, desplegando a la Policía Nacional y a las Fuerzas Armadas durante las protestas en todo el país y haciendo un uso excesivo de la fuerza contra los manifestantes.
Las normas internacionales de derechos humanos sobre el uso de la fuerza exigen que ésta sólo se emplee contra manifestantes cuando sea estrictamente necesario, de manera proporcional y con un fin legítimo, y que su uso se someta a un proceso de rendición de cuentas.
Le insto a que busque el diálogo y ponga fin de inmediato a toda forma de fuerza ilegítima por parte de las fuerzas de seguridad, incluido el cese efectivo de cualquier uso excesivo de la fuerza contra los manifestantes. También le insto a que utilice todos los recursos disponibles para salvaguardar la vida y la integridad de todas las personas heridas, proporcionando el apoyo necesario a las familias de los fallecidos, y a que colabore con las autoridades que investigan todas las denuncias de violaciones de derechos humanos en el contexto de la crisis actual de forma rápida, exhaustiva, independiente e imparcial.



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Dear Madam President Dina Boluarte,

I am writing to express my concern about the deaths of 18 people, during protests in the city of Juliaca, in the Puno region, in Peru, on 9 January 2023. I am also concerned about the dozens of people who were injured that day.

These deaths add up to an alarming death toll of at least 40 individuals since the start of the political crisis in Peru on 7 December 2022 and in the context of the repression of protests. The government has targeted those who have expressed discontent with the crisis, by deploying the National Police and the Armed Forces during protests across the country and by making use of excessive force against protesters.

International human rights standards on the use of force mandate that it should only be used against protesters when strictly necessary, in a proportional manner and for a legitimate purpose, and it should then be subject to a process of accountability.

I urge you to seek dialogue and immediately put an end to all forms of unlawful force by the security forces, including effectively putting an end to any excessive use of force against demonstrators. I also urge you to use all available resources to safeguard the life and integrity of all injured persons, providing the necessary support to the families of the deceased and collaborate with authorities investigating all allegations of human rights violations in the context of the current crisis promptly, thoroughly, independently, and impartially.

Yours sincerely,


Appeals to

President Dina Ercilia Boluarte Zegarra
Jr. De la Unión S/N, cuadra uno Lima
Lima 15001

Twitter: @DinaErcilia // Presidency of Peru: @presidenciaperu

Contact information:


Copies to

Botschaft von Peru
Thunstrasse 36
3005 Bern

Fax: 031 351 85 70



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Letter delivery to other countries - General info:
It is possible to send PRIORITY letters to almost all countries.
Please check
on the Website of the Swiss Post, whether letters are currently being delivered to the destination country.
If not, we ask you to use other communication channels (email, fax or social media, if available) for the delivery of your appeal and/or send it via the embassy with the request for forwarding to the named person.

Response on your appeal/letter

It might be that you will receive a reply to your appeal letter. You do not have to answer to it by yourself, but we would be grateful if you would send us this letter. Ideally scanned by e-mail to We forward the replies to the relevant research team (via Amnesty's International Secretariat). The colleagues analyze the content and decide on how to proceed, which may be reflected in a Further information.

Incidentally, we do not fear any consequences for UA activists in Switzerland. However, it makes sense to consider not to wrtite a letter if you intend to travel to the country (or have family there). This applies above all to «problematic» and repressive countries. (Russia, Turkey, China, ...)

Social media

We demand President Dina Boluarte to put an end on any excessive use of force against protesters in #Peru and seek dialogue. The cost of the political crisis cannot be paid with people's lives nor violence @DinaErcilia

Exigimos a la Presidenta Dina Boluarte detener todo uso excesivo de la fuerza contra personas que protestan en #Perú y a buscar el diálogo. El costo de la crisis política no puede ser pagado con la vida de las personas o a través de la violencia @DinaErcilia

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#CrisisEnElPerú: @DinaErcilia needs to immediately live up to the country's obligation under international law: protect those who protest

#CrisisEnElPerú: @DinaErcilia debe cumplir inmediatamente las obligaciones que impone el derecho internacional: proteger a quienes protestan

«Protect the Protest!»

Das Recht auf Protest ist bedroht wie nie zuvor. Unter dem Slogan «Protect the Protest!» lanciert Amnesty International eine weltweite Kampagne gegen die weltweiten Bestrebungen, dieses fundamentale Menschenrecht zu untergraben.
Zum Portal der Kampagne

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Manifester est devenu risqué. Dans certains contextes, ce droit fondamental est en péril. Avec «Protect the Protest!», Amnesty International lance une campagne mondiale pour défendre le droit de manifester, un droit essentiel au bon fonctionnement de nos sociétés.
Vers le portail de la campagne

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